What is the Difference Between Pool and Billiards

The cloth that is used is fast, meaning the balls move more swiftly on it. There are two sets of balls used here, one set of colored balls and the other set of striped balls. What we refer to as ‘pool’ is originally known as pocket billiards! There is a small story behind it which I am sure, you would like to know. Hence, the game got the untoward linking with the poolrooms and the gamblers. This process is called ‘carom’.


Basically, pool is not the original name of the game. The basic objective of the three cushion billiards is to hit both the target balls with the cue balls, while making three rails in tandem. Cue sports is the group of sports that are played with a cue stick and billiard balls, placed on a cloth covered table, that has rubber or leather cushion boundaries. Both of these sets are combined into a single set of 7 balls which is then setup with a set of 8 black balls.

Both games belong to the group of cue sports and this can be stated as the only similarity between the two but the differences are many.

The differences between them are many, the point structure and rules of pool are very different from billiards, but the similarity is, playing both the games requires a lot of skill and resolve.

Differences Between Billiards and Pool




Cloth Type

Cloth on the pool table, makes the movement of the balls a bit slow.

Cloth on the billiards table is fast, which helps in the swift movements of the balls.


Number of balls range from 1-15 according to the game.

At least three balls are used which are slightly larger than the pool balls.


Longer cue sticks, that are very slender as well as leaner, are used.

Smaller, with a thicker butt, shorter ferrule, fast taper, wooden pin joint and a small tip, are used.

Table Size

Minimum size is 3.5′ x 7′.

Minimum size is 5′ x 10′.. Of these, both the yellow and white can be used as cue balls or strikers. There are various types of carom billiards and some of them are, cushion carom, straight rail, balkline, artistic billiards, and three cushion billiards.

Pool utilizes different equipment than that of carom billiards. Pool is played on a pocketed table with the ball size smaller than that of carom billiards. Divided into three sub-groups, pocket billiards, carom billiards, and snooker, are three totally different games, unified under the name billiards.

The word carom which is actually a sort of abbreviation of the Spanish and Portuguese term ‘carambola’, which means ‘rebound after hitting’, came into general use during late 1860. The history goes back to the 18th century, when the game used to be played in the poolrooms, where the gamblers of the horse races used to ‘pool’ the money that they used to bet, off the records. Despite many initiatives of the rich class, the name pool was just stuck to the game and is still known so.

If you like either of these games, then this is a very obvious question that may come to your mind, time and again. It is sometimes also referred to as ‘carambole billiards’. This game is played on cloth covered, but pocket-less tables. I myself for example, used to think that pool and billiards are just different regional names given to a game which is known as snooker! And needless to say that I was wrong! To know the difference, one must get to know the origin of both, which ironically is the same. The word was used to describe the red ball. Many people have different assumptions and their own judgments when it comes to the differences. The game is played with three balls, in which one is red, one is white and one is yellow. The balls used are relatively heavier and larger than the pool balls. In the later era, pocket billiards was initially the pastime of the rich and refined people. The original name is ‘carom billiards’. Where, cowboy pool, bottle pool, American four ball pool, and English billiards are some hybrid forms.

A pool table consists of 6 pockets that are enclosed at the sides of the table. Sometimes referred to as ‘billiard sports’, all the cue sports are basically indoor sports. The cloth of a pool table is slow, as compared to that of the billiard table. There are literally a hundred types of pocket billiards being played all over the world, famous with names like eight ball pool, nine ball pool, straight pool and one pocket pool. Pool, billiards, and snooker are the most famous forms of a sport, known as cue sports.

What are Cue Sports?


The name billiards can be given to the whole bunch of cue sports

In support of Gather Authors – Cruise Quarters – A Novel About Casinos by Cara Bertoia

A romantic trip to beautiful places – highly recommended.

This novel rates high as one of the most enjoyable books I’ve read.  Writing about her own experiences, Cara smoothly combines her romance and true love with worldly adventures on a cruise ship, as a casino Croupier (dealer)..  I’m unable to decide which part I enjoyed best – the visits to exotic places where she finds the local cafes away from the tourist traps (becoming known as the “food scout”), she described the scenery, the food and the locals so vividly that I felt I was there and part of it.  Or perhaps it was the gambling.

Cara made her living as a casino dealer on this cruise ship and throughout the story I found myself at the gambling tables filling my head with more insight than I ever dreamed of.  Numbers, gamblers and those that gamble.  “A Gambler Knows to Celebrate A Win Tonight Because Tomorrow Might Be A Loss.”  Now I know what a Counter is and now I know a few ‘non-fail’ proof systems.


“In Life As In Cards, Never Show Them You Are Nervous”.  “Next stop, Rio de Janeiro, the City of hot nights and beautiful women.”   I probably enjoyed the visits to other countries the best, but if I go to a casino, I’ll be re-reading this book.

Progressive Gaming International Announces Approval for Progressive Baccarat(TM) in Macau

There are Progressive Gaming International products in over 1,000 casinos throughout the world. All rights reserved.

Progressive Gaming is unique in the industry in offering casino management and progressive systems in a modular yet integrated solution. For a discussion of these and other factors which may cause actual events or results to differ from those projected, please refer to the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as well as other subsequent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Products include multiple forms of regulated wagering solutions in wired, wireless and mobile formats. The Company does not undertake, and specifically disclaims any obligation, to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new circumstances or anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances as they occur.

Progressive Gaming International is a leading supplier of integrated casino and jackpot management system solutions for the gaming industry worldwide. Progressive Baccarat combines the excitement of Baccarat with the Company’s progressive technology.

About Progressive Gaming International. Baccarat is the most dominant game in the Asian markets and we believe that the addition of a progressive system will provide added value to both players and operators.”

Safe Harbor Statements under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: This release contains certain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding the approval of Progressive Baccarat, the anticipated growth of the Macau gaming market, the added value, the expected demand for Progressive Baccarat, and any additional value to players and operators due to the use of a progressive system. This technology is widely used to enhance casino operations and drive greater revenues for existing product as well as our own proprietary table games.

Progressive Baccarat is a registered trademark of Progressive Gaming International Corporation©. The Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. For further information, visit www.progressivegaming.net.

LAS VEGAS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Progressive Gaming International Corporation® (NASDAQ: PGIC) (the “Company”) a leading provider of technology products used in the gaming industry worldwide announced today that it has received approval for its Progressive Baccarat table game. Factors that could cause or contribute to differences include, but are not limited to, the risk that demand for Progressive Baccarat may not reach anticipated levels, the dominance or popularity of Baccarat in the Asian gaming market, the status of rights licensed from content providers, risks related to the Company’s ability to enforce and develop its intellectual property rights, including rights licensed from third parties, the risk that patents may exist of which the Company is not aware, or that existing patents may provide benefits to third parties beyond those anticipated by the Company, the Company’s ability to meet its capital requirements, relationships with casino operators, the overall industry environment, customer acceptance of the Company’s new products, further approvals of regulatory authorities, adverse court rulings, production and/or quality control problems, the denial, suspension or revocation of privileged operating licenses by governmental authorities, competitive pressures and general economic conditions as well as the Company’s debt service obligations. Such statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, and actual circumstances, events or results may differ materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements.

Neil Crossan, Executive Vice President – International Division, stated, “Due to the considerable success of our other progressive table games in Macau, we believe that Progressive Baccarat will be a winner in this rapidly growing market

Three Plead Guilty to Running International Sports Betting Ring

The U.S. attorney’s office says brothers Jan and Erik Portocarrero and Joseph Barrios entered the pleas Friday. Barrios was a major bookmaker for the operation.


Three Plead Guilty to Running International Sports Betting Ring


Three men charged with running an illegal international sports gambling ring that made millions have pleaded guilty to racketeering conspiracy in San Diego.. Each faces up to 20 years in federal prison.

An FBI investigation began in 2011 and led to 18 arrests in Los Angeles, San Diego and Norway, where Erik Portocarrero lived.

Authorities seized $12 million in assets that the defendants will forfeit.

Authorities say the company took bets from customers throughout California, strong-armed debtors and laundered proceeds.

Prosecutors say the brothers ran an internet and telephone gambling enterprise called “Macho Sports” for more than a decade from a headquarters in Lima, Peru

Blackjack Scam Video

The French name for the game is 21, which is where its English nickname comes from. Among all card games played on online casinos, it is the most popular worldwide. The object of the game is that the players have to draw cards to the two cards dealt to them initially so that….

Blackjack Strategies

Blackjack is a card game otherwise known as 21. It is a card game of comparing hands, using one or more decks of 52 cards

CNN – Gambling online? You bet!

California’s governor – and much of the local business community – opposed the Barona casino, and Rogers’ involvement was a political turning point.

Online horse racing has been an especially active area of late. In a highly publicized March 1998 “raid,” Mary Jo White, the U.S. In 1997, published reports put the total number of operating online casinos at 15. That makes for an Internet gambling environment too porous for U.S law enforcement to plug.

Does the seeming invincibility of online gambling make it an enticing business? Jason Ader of Bear Stearns, urges caution. For one thing, gambling from one’s home allows for a variety of techniques that would get one tossed out of a regular casino. The minimum amount to begin an account varies. White’s hesitancy suggests that the law may not be as solid as she thought when she indicted. O’Brien observes in Bad Bet, his comprehensive account of America’s gambling industry, “Judging by dollars spent, gambling is now more popular in America than baseball, the movies and Disneyland combined.”

Potential Internet Gambling

Revenue (In Millions)

Finally, the DoJ believes that any federal law must recognize that the Internet is different from other communications media: It’s a multifaceted communications medium that allows for both point-to-point transmission between two parties (like the telephone), as well as the widespread dissemination of information to a vast audience (like a newspaper). Attorney White has proceeded slowly and quietly. His equal partner is Australian tycoon Kerry Packer of the Crown Casino in Victoria. plan to launch the Television Games Network, which will feature four to six races per hour packaged into a live, hosted television program, with access to a full menu of wagering opportunities from tracks across the country.

First, legislation should treat physical activity and cyberactivity in the same way. The Justice Department doesn’t think that online casinos (including those that offer gambling on sports events) can legally conduct business in the United States, even if they are based in places where gambling is legal. Her higher-ups in the Justice Department appear to agree. Inland, for example, operates two Web sites in addition to the one bearing Kenny Rogers’ likeness: Casinoaustralia.com and Goodluckclub.com. Would-be wagerers open an account with a credit card, although some sites also accept cash and cashier’s checks. Not only can you walk right into its San Diego headquarters, you can buy its stock on the Nasdaq. EDT (2213 GMT)

Similarly, the Las Vegas-based public company American Wagering, owner of Leroy’s Horse and Sports Place in Nevada, also operates a sports gambling site located in Canberra called MegaSports (www.megasports.com.au). to gain access to offshore sites,” says Sebastian Sinclair of Christiansen/Cummings. Even the precise number of online casinos is hard to calculate. About 2,000 years later, Bugsy Siegel took the concept a step further and built the Flamingo Hotel in the desert town of Las Vegas. In 1998, the Senate passed, by a large margin, an amendment prohibiting Internet gambling, but that bill died before becoming law.


The explosion of online betting isn’t limited to the ponies. Passed during the term of crime-fighter Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the law was intended to outlaw betting over telephone lines. “I wager on football games and usually bet in the neighborhood of $1,000 every weekend. The Standard obtained a Department of Justice analysis of the bill S. Bets generally range from $1 to as much as $300.


More than a year later, however, no cases have come to trial, and nine defendants have accepted plea bargains for state misdemeanor charges with no jail time. college and professional sports.

Note: Pages will open in a new browser window

External sites are not endorsed by CNN Interactive.

Second, legislation should be technology-neutral. Their case is based on the 1961 Wire Act. In most cases, this means operating out of Australia. … As Timothy L. (The company did not respond to repeated requests for an interview.)

Confessions of a Net gambler

(Industry Standard)

Horse racing gets reformulated

(Industry Standard)

Senate vote aims to ban Net gambling


Special FBI unit targets online fraud, gambling


Web-based casinos are beating the odds


Seedy sites provide fertile ground


That partnership leads many observers to believe that an online casino – using Microsoft platforms, of course – is in the works.

Prosecutors focus on sports betting

Playboy has announced that it will offer a line of casino-style games on its Internet site that, like those on Kennyrogerscasino.com, U.S. has had little cooperation from any other nation.

But a hard-core base will continue to turn to Internet betting for its clear advantages. The outfit that handles its cybercash transactions is in Toronto. FBI agents placed bets on games – uniformly National Football League matches, although many other options are available – and followed up, whether they won or lost.

Is it legal?

If such gamblers are not satisfied by options available to U.S. “Think about what would happen to Wal-Mart (WMT), General Motors or Microsoft if these companies had to continue to dodge federal roadblocks to access their customers,” says Sebastian Sinclair, senior associate at Christiansen/Cummings Associates, a management consulting firm.

Today, Americans spend some $600 billion a year on legal gambling, making it by far the favored national pastime. citizen can’t trick the casino into letting him or her gamble, except in a free “practice” area.

The potential action is too compelling for even the largest tech tycoons to resist. It resides a few dozen miles off the coast of Venezuela, in the Netherlands Antilles. In the ’70s, Atlantic City legalized casino gambling; in the ensuing decades, state lotteries, Indian casinos, gaming ships, offtrack betting parlors and card clubs have sprouted across the landscape.

(IDG) — It’s illegal for Americans to offer gambling over the Internet, right? That’s why the industry is hidden in Caribbean shadows, right? Tell it to Kenny Rogers.

So how is it that these companies appear to operate legally, but a dozen Caribbean cowboys found themselves under felony indictment?

All the sites indicted by the U.S. “And it is possible that records could be subpoenaed of various banks where these companies maintain accounts.”

“People said, ‘How can it be so bad if Kenny Rogers likes it?’” recalls Opel. And Kenny’s site maintains a squeaky-clean distinction that many similar sites do not: A disclaimer in tiny type on several pages reads, “This site does not allow for gambling for money by persons within the United States.” Unless you have a credit card registered with a non-U.S. But according to Inland CEO Don Speer, elusive profits need not be one of them. But following a 1997 indictment, the state of Missouri settled a suit against the company and its president, Michael Simone, for about $35,000. WMH is a wholly owned subsidiary of Inland Entertainment, a San Diego-based company that trades under the ticker symbol INLD.


For years, another barrier to the growth of Internet gambling has been strong opposition from those most threatened by gambling sites: legal American casinos. That figure exaggerates the size of the Internet gambling sector, since some companies operate more than one online betting parlor. In late February, the New York Racing Association approved online Webcasts on its own site of horse races in the state (although bettors, for now, will still have to call an 800 number). If, on the other hand, an activity is in the physical world – betting on horses, or casino betting with Indian tribes – it becomes subject to federal criminal sanction when it occurs in cyberspace.

Is Microsoft betting too?

You might think that the prospect of competing against the likes of Microsoft would terrify a $20 million company like Inland. “It was very successful, in the sense that Indian gambling was still going through a lot of political challenges,” says Fritz Opel, Inland’s chief of online gaming. Yes, the casino’s license is held by a firm called Bardenac, but the substantial duties of operating the site – building it, advertising it, maintaining customer service – fall to a consulting company called Worldwide Media Holdings, which receives a percentage of all casino profits. If an activity is prohibited in the physical world but not on the Internet, the Internet becomes a safe haven for that criminal activity. In January, MegaSports began taking Internet bets from Australians; it expects soon to allow global gambling on sporting events.

A few hurdles have to be cleared before such ventures can take off – beginning with the federal government. “Ultimately, Internet gambling operators are selling a product. But they say the more bettors, the better. Justice believes that any legislation addressing criminal misuse of computers or computer systems (including the Internet) should have three vital characteristics.

Take Interactive Gaming and Communications, another publicly traded company, located in Blue Bell, Pa. attorney’s case involved the casinos’ sportsbooks. attorney’s office theoretically operate out of the Caribbean. (The company’s Indian casino and Web-development divisions make more.) “This is the really exciting point, because I know where it goes from here,” Speer said in an interview.

Note: Pages will open in a new browser window

External sites are not endorsed by CNN Interactive.

May 4, 1999

Web posted at: 6:13 p.m. The Internet is presently unregulated and we support a federal law regulating Internet gambling.”


Internet Gambling Worldwide, Past and Future



Industry Standard

But the growing acceptance of online betting and the Internet’s inherent ability to shatter jurisdictions bring the inconsistencies of American gaming law to a boil. They almost always include slots, blackjack and video poker, but many sites carry more exotic games, from baccarat to pai gow. He claims Inland’s Internet gambling business went slightly into the black in March, on annualized revenues of about $1 million. According to an analysis by Sue Schieder of Rolling Good Times, the online gambling magazine, the new legislation would not punish the casual bettor. The defendants, many of whom live abroad, were threatened with up to five years in prison and $250,000 fines.

Gambling is as at least as old as Christianity (that is, if Ben Hur can be trusted). It’s important with our players to know they’re dealing with a legitimate business.” Rogers and Inland are not alone. A few years ago, the Barona tribe decided to bring in Kenny Rogers as a spokesman. For decades, Vegas was about the only legal option for gamblers. 474, introduced into the Senate by Arizona’s John Kyl in 1997 as the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act. (However, an HBO sports program attempted to locate one of these ventures in Aruba, and ultimately found that the genuine server was in a residential neighborhood in Bethlehem, Pa.) And the Caribbean nations would like to keep their haven status. A Ninemsn spokesperson says that the site does not now offer online gambling and would not comment on future plans. But Playboy.com will also link to offshore gambling sites that play for real money. It is perfectly legal in 40 states and the District of Columbia to place a bet on Youbet.com. The vast majority of customers will satisfy their demand for commercial gambling through less onerous and risky alternatives, such as lotteries, bingo, pari-mutuels and casinos.”







Estimated Actual Internet

Gambling Revenue (In Millions)






The singer who immortalized “The Gambler” is not, his associates say, much of a gambler himself. Tony Cabot, an attorney specializing in gaming issues, says flatly, “When you see Kerry Packer get together with Microsoft, you have to believe there is a future for this type of wagering.”

The amount spent on Internet gambling is harder to calculate. Even the firms that have enjoyed some stock-price popularity – such as Youbet.com – have shaky fundamentals. Says Sinclair of Christiansen/Cummings: “You are going to feel more comfortable wagering with a Hilton than you will with Joe’s Casino.”

Betting on the ponies

Inland was initially founded in the 1980s as a consultant to the Barona tribe of Mission Indians, which operates a casino on a reservation near San Diego. address, a U.S. Estimates range from $650 million to $1 billion a year, worldwide – a tiny fraction of the amount spent on more traditional formats. Nor would it prohibit online fantasy sports leagues, online lotteries in states where they are legal, or online betting on any live horse race where it would otherwise be lawful to wager. As Internet gambling became a technological reality, Opel says he “saw some parallels” to the Indians’ situation, and reached out to Rogers again. Says Opel, “Bringing in the big names and established companies only adds credibility and visibility to what we’re already doing.”

The prosecutors’ focus on sports bets appears to stem from legal precedent in the law they relied on. Kyl introduced a revised version earlier this year, removing some of the more onerous and hard-to-enforce provisions.

But even if Congress comes up with the best-crafted legislation in history, there are significant factors beyond its control. Legislators have considered enlisting Internet service providers to patrol for undesirable sites, although Internet gambling insiders consider that proposal dead on arrival.

Source: Deutsche Bank; Christiansen/Cummings Associates

by James Ledbetter and Steve Viuker

One major barrier to profitability is the law. Legislation tied to a particular technology may quickly become obsolete and require further amendment.

Adult Home Internet Users

(In Millions)






Percentage of Users Conducting

Online Transactions






Potential Internet Gamblers

(In Millions)






Per Capita Expenditure






Running an online casino carries all the usual challenges of Internet businesses, from low click-through rates to servers that fail. But the travails associated with fending off lawsuits have essentially put the company out of business. Today, a roster on one “gambling portal” site lists well over 200. citizens, it will be increasingly tempting for them to turn to locations abroad. Almost all online gambling sites work the same. But in mid-1998, he authorized the construction and operation of Kenny Rogers Casino on the Internet, where Web surfers with credit cards can hold ‘em and fold ‘em until they walk away (or run).

Although it uses a CryptoLogic template similar to several other online casinos, Kennyrogerscasino.com may be unique in letting bettors wager as little as a penny at a time. citizens can play only for fun. “Since there are no controls at present regarding Internet wagering, I would urge investors to shun these firms at present,” he says. But as more and more traditional firms become involved, the consumer will look for the brand name. The Wire Act obviously has no mention of wagering over the Internet.

Casino wins with job program gamble

April 29, 1999

Second time a charm for Net gambling bill?

March 24, 1999

How Web-based casinos are beating the odds

March 3, 1999

But over the last several months, at least some traditional casinos have pursued the time-honored strategy of joining an Internet gambling trend that they can’t beat. “Federal legislation will make it difficult but not impossible for Internet gamblers in the U.S. Casino games are available on a site or via downloadable software. In November 1998, for example, a division of Hilton Hotels acquired the company that runs Centrebet, a Web and telephone sports-wagering system based in Australia (www.centrebet.com.au). One Australian state, Queensland, is already awarding licenses for online gambling, and others may follow soon. Failure to account for that specificity in legislation could stifle the Internet’s growth or chill its use as a communications tool.

Nonetheless, some experts think the case could be made to stick. Like the Communications Act passed in the 1930s, technology has now leapfrogged the law. Packer is a man with a voracious gambling appetite.

The original version of Kyl’s bill failed most of these tests.

It’s not because they operate in any fundamentally different way. With such upstanding media corporations dipping their toes into the pool of online gaming, some in the Internet industry are betting that the day when a “legitimate” online casino opens in the United States is not far behind. Aruba, for one, is refusing to extradite any indicted individuals to the U.S., and thus far the U.S. The American Gaming Association, a trade group of gaming firms, maintains this view regarding online wagering: “The industry has been state-regulated and we think it should remain that way. One of Microsoft (MSFT)’s less-publicized adventures is Ninemsn, an Australia-based Internet service to which Bill Gates has pledged tens of millions of dollars. Why should it be legal to bet online on a horse race in another state, but not legal to bet on a basketball game in one’s own state? If Native American tribes can establish new, legal, physical places where adults can gamble, why shouldn’t someone be able to do the same in cyberspace?

The office of U.S. Increasingly, the world of “legitimate” business is throwing its weight behind online gambling. Blackjack players can very easily count cards, or even consult odds charts; the Kennyrogerscasino.com site actually has a printable chart showing the best strategy for every possible hand of blackjack. attorney for the Southern District of New York, indicted 14 managers of six Internet companies for offering gambling on their sites. “We get daily reports, and you’ll see these people who spend a couple of hours gambling, and the total amount they bet is like $1.81,” says Thomas Holmes, Inland’s head of technology. “He’s been very helpful in creating credibility. Anyone over the age of 18 can set up an account with Centrebet and place money on a variety of worldwide sporting events, including U.S. I’ve not had problems being paid.”

Group calls for regulation of Net gambling

Kenny Rogers Casino

New York Racing Association


MegaSports International Sports Betting

Rolling Good Times

But for all that fastidiousness, Kenny Rogers Casino is essentially controlled by a company in the United States. “I use the service because it’s convenient and I have access to it when I want,” says one online gambler. This summer, TCI and News Corp. In March, a site called Bingohour.com went live. “The telephone is being used to facilitate these wagers and I believe the government has a solid case,” explains Tony Cabot, a Las Vegas-based gaming lawyer and author of a book on Internet gaming. It enables players to buy virtual bingo cards for $1 and win jackpots as large as $100,000.


Intriguingly, though, all the bets that make up the U.S. Together, these sites have about 4,300 registered customers in 96 countries around the world.

It’s true that, in keeping with most people’s perceptions of Web gambling, Kenny’s virtual casino is not physically located in the United States. At one point, Interactive Gaming looked like it could be an industry leader. And for sports bettors – who make up a majority of online gamblers, according to industry insiders – the ease of using cyberbookies can’t be beat. In early 1999, a Los Angeles-based firm called Youbet.com started Webcasting live races over the Web from 18 tracks across the country and offering surfers the ability to wager over the Internet. That may suggest that, as some legal observers have argued, the 1961 federal Wire Act is too old and too loosely written to prohibit online gambling.


Sport lotteries: the professional sports leagues take on the state of Delaware, again!

A sure bet: Why New Jersey would benefit from legalized sports wagering. Governor of the State of Delaware, 435 F. The NFL made the announcement on May 21, 2009. Seton Hall Journal of Sports Law, 2, 19-49.

National Football League v. 2009).

Even the NFL, which has historically been the league most staunchly opposed to any association with gaming enterprises, has recently approved the use of team names and logos for state lottery tickets, with prizes including league-licensed merchandise and special event tickets. Four states (Oregon, Nevada, Delaware, and Montana) which had operated sports betting schemes before the passage of PASPA were provided a limited exemption from PASPA. ESPN The Magazine. Pats plan lottery tie-in after NFL eases stance. (2009a, January 8). On July 24, 2009, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (collectively, leagues) filed a complaint alleging that elements of Delaware’s proposed sports betting scheme violated PASPA. From Shoeless Joe to Charlie Hustle: Major League Baseball’s continuing crusade against sports gambling. Del. (2010). It is estimated that Americans illegally wager between $80-380 billion annually on sporting events (Levinson, 2006). Like league commissioners before him, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell distinguishes between lottery tickets and sports books, arguing that lottery tickets are not tied to an NFL game’s outcome and therefore do not comprise the game’s integrity. The Third Circuit held that Delaware’s sports betting schemes were a violation of PASPA (Office of the Comm’r of Baseball v. Regardless of the breadth of the lottery authorized by Delaware state law in 1976, PASPA requires a determination of “the extent”–or degree–to which such lottery was conducted in order to determine whether the scheme is exempted under PASPA

Millman, C. (2010).

Markell v. The Office of the Commissioner of Baseball, 2010).

Implications for Sport Managers and Marketers

DISCLAIMER: Professor Anita M. The leagues sought an injunction to prevent Delaware from implementing the sports lottery until the case had been decided on its merits. Other teams such as the Detroit Lions, Tennessee Titans, Buffalo Bills, and New York Jets and Giants have indicated interest in similar deals (Abelson, 2009; Associated Press, 2009b). [section] 3701, et seq. That betting scheme was limited to multi-game parlays involving only NFL teams. (2006, Spring). This is not a solicitation for business. (2009, May 22). [section] 3704(a)(2) (which applies to a wagering scheme that was both (i) “authorized by a statute as in effect on October 2, 1991,” and (ii) “actually was conducted during the period beginning September 1, 1989, and ending on October 2, 1991″). Sports Lawyers Journal, 13, 143-178.

Delaware’s proposed sports betting scheme would have included single-game betting in addition to multi-game (parlay) betting (Office of the Comm’r of Baseball v. However, clearly a number of marketing activities are still permissible under the law and desired by sports teams as well as sport consumers.

Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, 28 U.S.C. Gaming Law Review, 7(1), 43-49.

The Third Circuit referred to the statutory language and found there to be a clear distinction between wagering schemes that were merely “authorized” and those that were “conducted.” See 28 U.S.C. That exception provides PASPA’s general prohibition against sports betting shall not apply to: “lottery, sweepstakes, or other betting, gambling, or wagering scheme in operation in a State or other governmental entity, to the extent that the scheme was conducted by that State or other governmental entity at any time during the period beginning January 1, 1976, and ending August 31, 1990″ (Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, 2010).

Introduction and Background

The Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (PASPA) prohibits state lotteries that employ a wagering scheme related to the outcome of sports contests (Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, 2010). (1992). Moorman, JD, teaches sport law in the sport administration program at the University of Louisville.

McKelvey (2004) examined the relaxation of rules used by the major sports leagues to regulate advertising and promotional activities of the league and the teams. The Office of teh Commissioner of Baseball, LEXIS 3712 (2010).

Associated Press. Thus, it is not surprising that the State of Delaware would seek to benefit from American consumers’ interest in sport betting. (2003). The following day the New England Patriots announced the team had negotiated a deal with the Massachusetts State Lottery, in which the team’s logo is featured on a scratch-off lottery ticket. Markell, 2009).

PASPA the Delaware Sports Lottery Scheme

The parties disagreed concerning the meaning of the phrase “to the extent that the scheme was conducted by the State” in this exception.

Delaware contended that its sports betting scheme qualified for the exception because Delaware conducted a sports lottery at some time between January 1, 1976, and August 31, 1990. PASPA “grandfathered” gambling schemes in these states “to the extent that the scheme was conducted by that State” between 1976 and 1990. 1372 (D. Moorman, JD, is an associate professor in sport administration at the University of Louisville, where she teaches sport law and legal aspects of sport. The casino will display its logo on tickets as well as locations throughout the baseball facility (Associated Press, 2009a). Following the passage of PASPA, only two states, Nevada and Oregon, still actively continued wagering on sporting events (Levinson, 2006).

The Third Circuit questioned Delaware’s interpretation that because state law previously authorized a broad lottery encompassing many types of games and many sports, it could now institute a broad lottery with the expanded features. Casino City Times. Faced with mounting budget deficits, states are looking for new revenue sources (Millman, 2009). (2009b, May 21). When the United States District Court denied the leagues’ request for an injunction, the leagues pursued an expedited appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. ESPN.com. The Third Circuit accepted jurisdiction over the appeal and addressed whether the language of PASPA permitted or prohibited Delaware’s planned sports lottery scheme based upon Delaware’s exemption under PASPA. Markell, 579 F.3d 293 (3rd Cir. Supp. The State also argued that the exemption was broad in scope, and nowhere states that it restricted Delaware to operating particular lottery games for a particular sport. The statute contains four exceptions, only one of which was raised in this case. Markell, 2009). However, the professional sports leagues as well as the NCAA have vehemently opposed any form of gambling connected to the outcome of their sports contests. Delaware intended to implement a sports betting scheme including wagers where winners would be determined based on the outcome of professional sporting events, including auto racing. Collegiate sporting events involving Delaware colleges or universities, and amateur or professional sporting events involving a Delaware team were excluded from the betting scheme. The only sports betting scheme “conducted” by Delaware in 1976 involved the three Scoreboard games. Inquiries regarding this feature may be directed to Anita M. Her research interests include commercial law issues in the sport industry, and legal and ethical issues related to sport marketing practices, brand protection, and intellectual property issues in sport.

Levinson, M. Casino City, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.casinocitytimes.com/news/article/horseshoe-casino-takes-over- wrigley-field-177772

The Third Circuit therefore held that any effort by Delaware to allow wagering on athletic contests involving sports beyond the NFL would violate PASPA. All for integrity of all for naught: The battle over state-sponsored sports betting. 1385). Thus, the only sport lottery actually conducted by the State of Delaware between 1976 and 1991 was a three-game parlay lottery game involving only NFL contests.

The materials in this column have been prepared for informational and educational purposes only, and should in no way be considered legal advice. These relaxed rules are clearly evident in a number of recent marketing and sponsorship agreements. Delaware intended to commence its sports betting scheme on September 1, 2009, in time for the start of the upcoming NFL regular season. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2009/05/22/pats_plan_lottery_tie_in_after_nfl_eases_stance/ Associated Press. No single-game betting was “conducted” by Delaware in 1976, or at any other time during the time period that triggered the PASPA exception (NFL v. The casino also offered special transportation between Wrigley Field and its new location during its grand opening (Casino City, 2010).

COPYRIGHT 2010 Fitness Information Technology Inc.

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

The presence of gambling in sport is most commonly decried as a threat to the integrity of sport (Fecteau, 2003; Ostertag, 1992). By providing these materials it is not the intent of Professor Moorman to enter into an attorney-client relationship with the reader. You should not act or rely upon these materials without first consulting an attorney. For example, the Milwaukee Brewers signed a multi-year sponsorship agreement with Potawatomi Bingo Casino. If you choose to contact Professor Moorman through e-mail, please do not provide her with any confidential information.

However, the landscape of sports betting faced a radical change in March 2009 when the Governor of Delaware, Jack Markell, proposed legislation authorizing sports betting and table gaming at existing and future facilities in Delaware. Governor of Delaware, the National Football League sued the State of Delaware to prevent the state from conducting an NFL-themed sport lottery, alleging trademark infringement. Horseshoe Casino takes over Wrigley Field. M. Sports leagues sue to block betting. The Boston Globe. Instead, the Third Circuit agreed with the interpretation offered by the leagues that the exception applied only to lotteries or other schemes “to the extent” that such lottery or scheme “was conducted” by the State between January 1, 1976, and August 31, 1990. 1977).

To determine what scheme Delaware could conduct in 2009 (as compared to the scheme Delaware actually conducted in 1976), the Third Circuit reflected on the well-known and often cited 1977 case of NFL v. Delaware, 1977, p. Delaware petitioned the United States Supreme Court to review the decision of the Third Circuit, but the Court denied the Petition For Certiorari on May 3, 2010 (Markell v. P. Interestingly, despite their vehement opposition to sport gambling tied to the outcome of their sport contests, the leagues are continuing to enter into their own marketing, sponsorship, and advertising relationships with gaming enterprises to increase team and league revenues.

Fecteau, M. professional sport organizations policies shift to embrace legalized gambling entities: A role of the dice? Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 14, 23-41.

Anita M. Horseshoe Casino purchased rooftop advertising space at Wrigley Field to promote its new casino near the stadium. The Third Circuit did, however, confirm that under federal law, Delaware could institute multi-game (parlay) betting on at least three NFL games, because such betting was consistent with the scheme conducted by the state in 1976. Moorman at amm@louisville.edu.

Office of the Comm’r of Baseball v. And, since single-game betting was not “conducted” by Delaware between 1976 and 1990, such betting was held to be beyond the scope of the PASPA exception and thus prohibited under the statute’s plain language. The team acknowledged the sponsorship will help offset revenues lost when another of its major sponsorship agreements concluded. Retrieved from http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/news/story?id=4197088


Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. Delaware previously only conducted a three-game parlay lottery on NFL contests, but now planned to permit single-game lotteries on all professional league games, NASCAR events, and collegiate sport contests not involving a Delaware college.. Delaware’s broad interpretation effectively would mean it is allowed to conduct any sports lottery under State control because it did so in 1976. (2004, Winter). All rights reserved.

Casino City, Inc. While the NFL was not successful in the 1977 case, the lottery scheme conducted by the State of Delaware in 1977 was well documented in the case. (2009, July 24). Governor of Delaware. Retrieved from http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/print?id=4353948type=story

Ostertag, T .J. Critics disagree and assert Goodell’s concession was driven by the need for additional revenue sources to offset smaller sponsorship revenues in the economic downturn (Abelson, 2009).

PASPA prohibits any person or governmental entity from sponsoring, operating, advertising, or promoting: a lottery, sweepstakes, or other betting, gambling, or wagering scheme based, directly or indirectly (through the use of geographical references or otherwise), on one or more competitive games in which amateur or professional athletes participate, or are intended to participate, or on one or more performances of such athletes in such games (Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, 2010). All of the major professional sport leagues as well as the NCAA opposed the implementation of Delaware’s planned sports betting scheme and filed suit challenging Delaware’s legislation.

McKelvey, S. Pats get lottery deal, other teams talking. The appellate court agreed that it is not sufficient that a particular lottery may have been contemplated, or even authorized, but rather must consider the specific means by which the lottery was actually conducted.

Abelson, J. In NFL v. Brewers sign deal with casino.ESPN.com. Retrieved from http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/storyTid=3819834

The Third Circuit’s decision is a good reminder that lotteries and even promotional activities tied to the outcome of a sports contest are problematic and that the leagues will aggressively seek to prevent these types of activities. U.S

Crack Cocaine Drama ‘Snowfall’ From John Singleton Gets Pilot Order At FX

“I have always been fascinated with that volatile moment in time before crack changed everything,” said co-creator, director and executive producer John Singleton. “The pilot script by John and Eric brilliantly depicts the era through the story of three captivating characters, and we can’t wait to see John’s execution of it.”

. I couldn’t have better partners for this journey.”

Eric Amadio co-wrote the script alongside John Singleton, who will also direct the pilot. The network has handed out a pilot order to Snowfall, a drama from award-winning filmmaker John Singleton which explores the crack cocaine epidemic in Los Angeles in the early 1980s.

Snowfall is set against the backdrop of the crack cocaine problem in Los Angeles in 1981 and follows three characters on a violent collision course: Franklin Saint, young street entrepreneur on a quest for power; Gustavo Zapata, a Mexican wrestler turned gangster in search of his American dream; and Logan Miller, a prominent family’s “black sheep” desperate to escape his father’s shadow.

“Snowfall takes us on a wild ride through one of LA’s most fascinating cultural and social periods, and no one can tell this story better than John Singleton”, added Eric Schrier, President of Original Programming for FX Networks and FX Productions. “It’s a tense, insane and sexy era that touched every aspect of our culture. John Singleton, Dave Andron, Michael London, Eric Amadio and Trevor Engelson will executive produce.

Crack Cocaine Drama ‘Snowfall’ From John Singleton Gets Pilot Order At FX – TVWise

FX Logo

FX LogoFX is getting in on the drug trade. FX’s sister studio FX Productions is behind the hour-long project, which is set to begin production this Summer

Column: FIFA presidency no laughing matter as would-be candidate becomes frontman for gambling

In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.. “It’s great for Paddy Power. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. Write to him at jleicester@ap.org or follow him at http://twitter.com/johnleicester

“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.

Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.

Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.


But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.

Whoa. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”

And that isn’t funny at all.

PARIS –  Don’t laugh. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”


Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.

All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.

“It just makes like a mockery of football.”

One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.

Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).

We’re talking here about David Ginola. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.

But that’s not the point here. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.

“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.

John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press. Bet some more.

Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. Bet again. After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.

“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.

That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.

But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. This was about making a splash. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.

And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.

Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth

Casino Gambling’s Future Is Online, Industry Panel Says

The bill Christie vetoed would have had the Atlantic City casinos maintain the servers, thus technically making the transactions happen in Atlantic City. Christie didn’t buy that argument, and also worried about bars and restaurants setting up “Internet cafes” that would be fronts for illegal gambling.

“In fact, in the immediate aftermath of online poker’s April 15 `Black Friday,’ some of the 300 companies that continued to operate in the U.S., in spite of the law, saw a surge in new business,” he said. He said the recent raids by federal prosecutors on online poker web sites makes it unlikely the federal government will approve Internet gambling, leaving states an opportunity to do it on a piecemeal basis.

The American Gaming Association called the prosecutions a “half measure” toward fixing the problem and called for federally sanctioned licensing and regulation of online poker.

The association’s president, Frank Fahrenkopf, said millions of Americans bet billions of dollars a year at foreign websites, and will continue to do so as long as there are sites they can access.

Speaking at the East Coast Gaming Congress, executives from two online betting organizations and Caesars Entertainment said the Internet provides the gambling industry its best opportunity for growth. at nearly $80 billion.

“If we look at this as a state opportunity, we will have lost the single largest opportunity for this industry,” said Jones, the Caesars executive. Chris Christie vetoed a bill that would have permitted it, voicing concern about its legality. But they would lose out on a lucrative worldwide market that unscrupulous illegal website operators will fill, they added.

New Jersey was on the verge of becoming the first state in the nation to approve Internet gambling within its state borders. “If you don’t have that international capability – Europe, Asia – you can’t go in there because you can’t go outside your own state. Christie suggested if New jersey legislators are serious about allowing Internet gambling, they should put a proposed Constitutional amendment before the voters and let them decide.

That’s exactly what state Assemblyman John Burzichelli, a south Jersey Democrat, said the legislature plans to do.

New Jersey law requires that all casino gambling in the state take place in Atlantic City. They want this to be a state issue.”

And a New Jersey lawmaker predicted there will be a ballot question next year asking his state’s residents whether to amend the state Constitution to allow Internet gambling.

The companies, all based overseas, are PokerStars, Full Tilt Poker and Absolute Poker. We came close, and we’re going to do it again. You lost the worldwide opportunity.”

“That’s what they look forward to,” she said. Prosecutors in Manhattan said they’ve issued restraining orders against more than 75 bank accounts in 14 countries used by the poker companies, interrupting the illegal flow of billions of dollars.

“You’re not going to stop the Internet,” said Jan Jones, senior vice president of government relations for Caesars Entertainment. in October 2006 enacted the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act, which makes it a crime for gambling businesses to knowingly accept most forms of payment in connection with the participation of another person in unlawful Internet gambling.

Because of that prosecution, individual states will try to approve Internet gambling solely within their own borders, panel members agreed. “You can regulate it, you can put in protections, but it’s going to exist.”

“Next year there’s probably going to be a question on the ballot to allow Internet gambling,” he said. market.”

ATLANTIC CITY, N.J. But the prospect of a federal law permitting it appears dim in light of recent federal raids on online gambling sites.

Federal prosecutors in Maryland on Monday announced indictments of three other people and two businesses, plus the seizure of 11 bank accounts and 10 website domain names.

In April, federal authorities busted the three largest online poker web sites in the United States on charges of bank fraud and illegal gambling against 11 people, accusing them of manipulating banks to process billions of dollars in illegal revenue. “I’ve yet to find one governor, one legislator, one lottery director that tells me otherwise. But Gov. “Whether or not New Jersey voters amend the Constitution is up in the air. We’re going to take another run at it.”

Melanie Brenner, president of the U.S. The indictment seeks $3 billion in money laundering penalties and forfeiture from the defendants.

The indictment said the companies ran afoul of the law after the U.S. “Today, there are more than 1,000 real-money websites operated by these offshore operators that still target the U.S. Online Gaming Association, said more than 10 million people currently play online poker.. “This is the path to growth for (the casino) industry.”

“I believe strongly there will not be a national online gambling bill passed in the U.S.,” he said. — Internet gambling is the future of the casino industry, whether it’s approved at the federal or state level, a panel of online and brick-and-mortar casino executives said Tuesday.

Richard Bronson, chairman of U.S.

Panel members estimated the potential annual revenue from legalized Internet gambling in the U.S. Digital Gaming, predicts individual states will approve online gambling soon