W88 warhead program performs successful tests

Sandia and its partners are analyzing results to validate requirements and radar design.

The two successful tests, which were conducted this summer, provide data for the program, the W88 ALT 370 (alteration), to move forward, said Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities.

Sandia National Laboratories performed a drop test for the W88 ALT 370 program, designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface. It also represented a milestone: the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

“The weapon is not required to function after that, just to stay safe,” Edwards said.

Sandia will use vibration and shock measurements from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon, he said. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels.

Explore further:

Evaluating powerful batteries for modular grid energy storage

The new radar functioned as expected after launch on a Trident II missile from a Navy submarine, Edwards said. An abnormal environment is one that is unexpected, such as an accident.

. Using an unarmed re-entry body, Sandia conducted the test in partnership with LANL, KCP and Pantex at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon, making the test as realistic as possible.

It was the W88 program’s first abnormal drop test since the system’s original qualification test in 1987. The June CRAFT test was the first of several planned flight tests to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

The first flight and drop tests for the latest variant of the W88 nuclear warhead are providing data for Sandia National Laboratories to validate designs, improve computer modeling and update component specifications.

A month later, the first drop test of the W88 ALT 370 program mimicked a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface to develop evidence that it would remain safe during an accident

FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party

The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. Scientists at Los Alamos and at the government’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California concluded the change did not degrade the reliability of the triggers, according to NNSA.

By H. Such approval means they are ready to use.

FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum

Project on Government Oversight: http://www.pogo.org

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

___

On the Net:

WASHINGTON – 

Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. JOSEF HEBERT, Associated Press Writer

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.

The change in manufacturing process, from wrought to cast, has been a subject of debate and extensive analysis among those involved in nuclear weapons. That required extensive computer modeling and testing to assure precise shape, size and weight and that the triggers meet performance requirements.

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. A single trigger made at Rocky Flats cost less than $4 million. The number has been estimated at about 400, in addition to an estimated 3,200 W76 warheads that also are designed for the submarine-based Trident II missile.

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.

Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

The agency acknowledged there were “more than 70 engineering authorizations” _ as it characterizes the waivers _ approved in the new W88 pit certification and that this was a “relative high number.”

Los Alamos National Laboratory: http://www.lanl.gov/

Because the U.S. no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. He was on a panel that last year concluded the plutonium in warhead triggers is much sturdier than previously thought, with a life span of as much 100 years.

But Los Alamos and agency officials bristle at suggestions that the new triggers might be less reliable or have flaws that could affect their performance.

Raymond Jeanloz of the University of California at Berkeley, a longtime adviser to the government on nuclear weapons issues, said in an interview he is not surprised there have been some modification in the W88 warhead, but that does not mean it is less reliable.

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

In an e-mail response to the watchdog group’s claims, Bernard Pleau, a spokesman for the agency’s office at Los Alamos, said the changes do not “compromise the integrity of the parts. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. That difference in cost was noted by Brian in the letter to the energy secretary.

Kevin Roark, a spokesman for the Los Alamos weapons program said the changes in specifications “have been fully explored, fully vetted and fully accepted by NNSA and engineering analysis (conducted) by us.”

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Sunday, January 20, 2008

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.. At Los Alamos, it has cost an estimated $430 million over 10 years to certify the first trigger. The bottom line _ the pits produced meet all functional quality requirements for use and are fully accepted by NNSA.”

The government will not say how many W88 warheads it has. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. All rights reserved. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

“The manufacturing process for the W88 has been incredibly, thoroughly vetted,” said Jeanloz. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

National Nuclear Security Administration: http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.

Officials say the cost figures reflect the fact that new facilities and a new process for making the replacement triggers had to be developed

Hacking by China not necessarily a “hostile act” – CNN Security Clearance

Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said he “believe(s) someone in China is hacking into our systems and stealing technology and intellectual property which at this point is a crime.”

But Dempsey told the Senate Armed Services Committee where he was testifying that he cannot attribute the Chinese hacking to China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army.

“Happy Valentine’s Day,” Dempsey replied.

“I would consider it a crime,” Dempsey said. top military officer said should China’s military be found to be behind hacks into the U.S. infrastructure, it would not necessarily be a “hostile act.”

By Adam Levine

Graham noted he was about to lunch with the Vice President of China who is in the U.S.

Gen. this week and asked Dempsey if there was anything he wanted to pass on to Xi Jinping.

Asked by Republican Senator Lindsey Graham from South Carolina if it could be proven that the PLA was behind a hacking of the defense infrastructure, would it be considered a “hostile act,” Dempsey said it wasn’t necessarily.. Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.

The U.S

FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party

For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. The bottom line _ the pits produced meet all functional quality requirements for use and are fully accepted by NNSA.”

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. The number has been estimated at about 400, in addition to an estimated 3,200 W76 warheads that also are designed for the submarine-based Trident II missile.

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. Such approval means they are ready to use.

Because the U.S. JOSEF HEBERT, Associated Press Writer

National Nuclear Security Administration: http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form. ___

On the Net:

By H. That difference in cost was noted by Brian in the letter to the energy secretary.

The agency acknowledged there were “more than 70 engineering authorizations” _ as it characterizes the waivers _ approved in the new W88 pit certification and that this was a “relative high number.”

Officials say the cost figures reflect the fact that new facilities and a new process for making the replacement triggers had to be developed. no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. He was on a panel that last year concluded the plutonium in warhead triggers is much sturdier than previously thought, with a life span of as much 100 years.

The government will not say how many W88 warheads it has. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. All rights reserved. That required extensive computer modeling and testing to assure precise shape, size and weight and that the triggers meet performance requirements.

FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.

“The manufacturing process for the W88 has been incredibly, thoroughly vetted,” said Jeanloz. At Los Alamos, it has cost an estimated $430 million over 10 years to certify the first trigger. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

Raymond Jeanloz of the University of California at Berkeley, a longtime adviser to the government on nuclear weapons issues, said in an interview he is not surprised there have been some modification in the W88 warhead, but that does not mean it is less reliable.

But Los Alamos and agency officials bristle at suggestions that the new triggers might be less reliable or have flaws that could affect their performance.

The change in manufacturing process, from wrought to cast, has been a subject of debate and extensive analysis among those involved in nuclear weapons. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. Scientists at Los Alamos and at the government’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California concluded the change did not degrade the reliability of the triggers, according to NNSA.. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

Los Alamos National Laboratory: http://www.lanl.gov/

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.

Sunday, January 20, 2008

A single trigger made at Rocky Flats cost less than $4 million. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

Project on Government Oversight: http://www.pogo.org

Kevin Roark, a spokesman for the Los Alamos weapons program said the changes in specifications “have been fully explored, fully vetted and fully accepted by NNSA and engineering analysis (conducted) by us.”

Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

WASHINGTON – 

Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.

In an e-mail response to the watchdog group’s claims, Bernard Pleau, a spokesman for the agency’s office at Los Alamos, said the changes do not “compromise the integrity of the parts. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S

Sandia drops nuclear warhead … in the name of safety

The shock and vibration data will be used to update its design specifications for later modifications and to simulate other accidents that might occur, but have not been tested in real life.

The United States hasn’t fielded a new nuclear weapon since 1988 and its deterrent arsenal is the oldest in the world. In order to ensure that the current inventory of warheads remain safe and effective for another 20 to 30 years, the National Nuclear Security Administration is carrying out a program of inspecting, refurbishing, and updating the stockpile.

Sandia and its partners are currently evaluating the results from both sets of tests, though the company says that the radar functioned as expected.

The second test was conducted in July at Sandia’s 85-foot Drop Tower Facility. As part of the US government’s Life Extension Program (LEP) for its nuclear arsenal, the inert W88 ALT 370 warhead was dropped from a crane in New Mexico onto a slab of concrete to test the updated design’s safety.

Sandia says that this is the first drop test conducted on a W88 warhead since 1988. In real life, there would be no chance of a nuclear explosion, and the warhead would not be expected to function afterward, but there is concern that radioactive or toxic materials might be exposed should the warhead’s casing crack.

The W88 is one of the United State’s primary nuclear weapons. In the first test, the Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT), an unarmed W88 was launched in June by a Trident II missile from an Ohio-class nuclear submarine with the goal of seeing how the radar operated at hypersonic re-entry speeds, which generate ionized plasma that can interfere with radar.

Dropping a nuclear warhead may not seem like a particularly bright idea, but earlier this year Sandia National Laboratories did just that. As part of this effort, Sandia carried out a series of tests this year on the W88′s radar arming and fusing system, as well as drop tests to simulate a loading accident involving the warhead.. Its purpose was to see if the warhead could remain safe after a fall similar to one that might occur during a loading or shipping accident. With a yield of 475 kilotons, it’s designed to be small enough for as many as 14 to be fitted in a MIRV configuration atop a Trident II missile, though only eight are carried on each launcher under the terms of the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

Source: Sandia

The purpose of the tests was to determine how well the modifications to the warhead work, as well as gathering data for computer modeling for further updates and simulations of various accident scenarios

Column: FIFA presidency no laughing matter as would-be candidate becomes frontman for gambling

It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.

Bet. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. Bet some more.

But that’s not the point here. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.

Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. This was about making a splash. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.

We’re talking here about David Ginola. Write to him at jleicester@ap.org or follow him at http://twitter.com/johnleicester

Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.

One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.

Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.

But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. “It’s great for Paddy Power. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”

But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.

All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.

That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.

And that isn’t funny at all.

Whoa. So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.

“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.

“It just makes like a mockery of football.”

___

PARIS –  Don’t laugh. In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.

“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.

Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth. Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).

. Bet again. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.

Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.

“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.

And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”

John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press

Netflix Stock Hits High Price, But Analysts Say It’s Still Way Too Low

Some European customers are using VPN networks to access the American Netflix servers to change that. Their expansion has lead to over 20 million subscribers in over 50 markets, including New Zealand, Australia, and Cuba. “And so we’re really propelled by that big macro trend.”

European Netflix customers are also dealing with smaller selection than customers in the United States. “Internet TV is growing around the world at incredible rates,” Netflix CEO Reed Hastings said in Netflix’s earnings call last month. When asked by a German contingent if Netflix would devise a download option instead of streaming, Hasting gave an answer which amounted to “no.”

Even though Netflix has its eye on expansion and growth, the European community is reminding them to remember the already-established markets and improve the services soon. If all goes as planned, this could mean Netflix would have access to the 90 billion Yuan (or $1.45 billion) market by the year 2018. Netflix is working with the Chinese media company Wasu Media Holding Co., led by Alibaba Group chairman Jack Ma, to begin service to customers in China. With poor service, choices, a European film community that is fighting back, and piracy issues, Netflix needs to address these issues and find resolution to keep the European market viable while expanding into the Chinese and South Korean markets.

According to Wired, Netflix have caught the attention of Apex Capital, who has announced that Netflix will become the next $100 billion tech company.

Netflix Stock Hits High Price, But Analysts Say It’s Still Way Too Low

[Image courtesy of Netflix Life]

Netflix announced last month that the service had accumulated over 40 million customers at the end of the quarter. Netflix also announced that they are now producing over 320 hours of original programming with shows including House of Cards and Orange is the New Black series, which have garnered Netflix multiple Emmy awards.

Netflix stock keeps rising and rising, but many analysts say it’s still not high enough.

It was recently announced that Netflix is negotiating to enter the Chinese market. Pivotal’s Jeffrey Wlodarczak reevaluated Netflix’s international company growth from 78 million new customers internationally to 95 million paying subscribers, with overall subscribers rising from 138 million to 160 million.

Breitbart News is reporting that Netflix closed at a price of $628.50 per share on Tuesday, when an analyst from Pivotal Research Group, an equity research firm, raised the end-of-year stock price for Netflix (NYSE: NFLX) at $850 per share.

The European market is suffering from slow internet speeds, which is affecting the performance of Netflix in the European market. Wlodarczak estimates China could mean another 13.5 million subscribers, and another 2.5 million subscribers to Netflix.. Netflix has stated they would like to be in over 200 markets by 2017.

Wall Street seems to be resigned that Netflix soon will dominate the world

English Premier League History

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), the European football management body brought the five-year ban on English clubs playing in European competitions in 1990 (which will raise a Manchester United in the UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup in 1991) and the Taylor Report in the Stadium security a costly modernization proposed in order to create all the stadium after the Hillsborough disaster, was released in January this year.

The 2009 season had full seasons in the Premier League. The founders signed July 17, 1991 established playing in clubs at the highest level by the basic principles of the FA Premier League.Would have a new department to negotiate commercial independence of the Football Association and the league with the FA Premier League license to its own mission and sponsorship. The first goal in the Premier League won Brian Deane Sheffield United victory against Manchester United.The 22 founding members of the new Premier League Arsenal, Aston Villa, Blackburn Rovers, Chelsea, Coventry City, Crystal Palace, Everton, Ipswich Town, Leeds United, Liverpool, Manchester City, Manchester United, Middlesbrough, Norwich City Nottingham Forest Rangers Oldham Athletic, Queens Park, Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday, Southampton, Tottenham and Wimbledon.. First Division League, the highest in English football since 1888, was far away in the league than Serie A and Spanish La Liga in the presence and revenue, and some of the best English players transfer of all “foreign However, in 1990 the downward trend begins to retire. Argument at that time given that the additional revenue to England against teams from across Europe are competition.

The league held its first during the and consisted of 22 clubs. June 2006, the FIFA insisted that all major European leagues like Italy, Serie A, Spanish La Liga be reduced to 18 teams in the spring of  season.Fun88 Premier League responded by resisting his intention to such a reduction.In season started with 20 teams. Crumbling stadiums, supporter, support the poor facilities, hooliganism was high, and the prohibition of English clubs in European competitions five years after the events at Heysel in 1985. Thank you for your suggestion of the International Football Association (FIFA), soccer governing body for the international, national championships or reduce the number of games played in clubs, a number of clubs was reduced from 20 in 1995, banned the four teams and only two Teams encouraged. 12bet England in the 1990 World Cup was the quarter-finals. The league has changed its name to the Premier League Premier League by 2007.

In 1992 the First Division clubs in the Football League en masse and 27 May 1992 the Premier League was limited use in the office, so that the Football Association, based at Lancaster Gate.It was a break of 104 years, the league, which is currently four divisions, Premier League, the division of roles and the League and three play.Mansion88 No changes in the way of competition, the same number of teams for the elite, the ascending and relegation between the Premier League and the new premier league is the same as the old first and second division league three teams and three encouraged.

Foundation

In 1991, the proposal to establish a new league was tabled that will bring more money into the game in general. Negotiations with the first signs of the breakaway league of ten clubs threatened to leave and form of the Super League, but eventually persuaded to stay.How to improve the stadiums and playing there and the revenue from the top teams in the country, while the League of injected before growing power of money in the sport.

Although a major European success in 1970 and early 1980, the late 80s reported low temperatures of English football. 8.

Origins

Development

Television money has become more important, the league has a 6.3 million two-year contract in 1986, but if the contract was renewed in 1988, rose to 44 million in four years, 1988

U.S. History: Income Distribution and Reaganomics

As Harrison and Bluestone state it, “Globalization of production was no longer supplementing domestic manufacturing but replacing it (Harrison Bluestone 28).” Restructuring involved creating multinational corporations with its headquarters and support functions in the major capitalist countries. Strangely enough, this period seems to be the era of debt for both the government and the American income earners. The inequality of income is not limited to only a specific age group (Harrison Bluestone 125).

Any discussion on Reaganomics should always contain a definition of Reaganomics so let’s get that out of the way from the start. I must add at this point that the “U-turn” in America’s economics actually began during the 1970′s; Reagan only sped up and expanded the process significantly (“U-turn”- the term used by Bluestone and Harrison to describe the reversal of fortune of the labor forces and the shrinking middle class).

If labor had not been weakened enough by the high unemployment levels in the late 1970′s, Reagan’s firming of the PATCO members sent a clear message to not only the unions, but also to the courts as to his lack of support for organized labor. production employment. By the mid-1970′s global competition was eating away at American business profits. Many of the nation’s economic critics saw the policies of Reaganomics as short-term answers to a long-term problem by borrowing against the nation’s future.

Creative wage reduction programs such as the two-tier pay system and conversion of a percentage of full-time employees to contingency labor employees (part-time and temporary employees) or a combination of methods became (and are still) the normal practice. lost one out of three heavy industrial jobs.

To better compete in a global economy, US industries adopted a program of “restructuring”. U.S. The program included freezing the minimum wage and shifting against federal protection of workers’ rights and unions. New employees would only receive 75 to 80-percent of the normal wage during a probation period (the probation period usually equated to the business’s employee turnover period). This included family members taking on extra jobs or moonlighting in order to make ends meet. Employment in the manufacturing area fell seven-percent between 1968 and 1979, continuing to fall twelve-percent more through the 1980′s and 1990′s (Slater 143). Both sides of the Reaganomic fence provide more than enough evidence in support of the argument that says: lower and middle class America lost significant ground during the 1980′s. Revolving installment credit grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149). According to Krugman, these salaries did not come primarily from greater profits, but from a larger slice of the profits.

Contingency labor pools were (and still are) not organized under a union. Yet, the cost to the average American laborer during that era and continuing into the next administration was what gave Reaganomics its negative reputation.

From 1969 – 1980 (prior to Reaganomics) wage cuts and freezes were “practically non-existent” (Harrison Bluestone 39). Who paid for the improvements in American business during the 1980′s? The lower 60% of American workers paid for these improvements through the reductions in the real purchasing power of their income.

Deregulation under Carter and Reagan opened the industries of steel, automotive, carpenters, and trucking to what Geoghegan called gypsies – small owner operators (Geoghegan 139). To continue the weakening of the labor pool, the Reaganites engineered the recessions of 1980 and 1981-2 to under-cut labor organizations while contributing to the corporate bottom line (Harrison Bluestone 14). Ronald Reagan’s supporters credit him as being the great savior of the American economy; his critics’ credit his policies for creating the destruction of labor and gambling away the future of the American economy through massive increases in the federal deficit. And, of course, both sides of the argument will present evidence in support of their positions. More family members entered the work force in order to increase or sustain real income purchasing power. Reaganomics as described by most, if not all economists and historians was supply-side economics; however, this in itself doesn’t really explain Reaganomics because of what actually happened. The groundwork for Reaganomics policies was put in place well before his time.

In Thomas Geoghegan’s book, Which Side Are You On? Trying To Be For Labor When It’s Flat on Its Back, two pieces of legislation are discussed as the beginning of the end for organized labor began with the 1935 Wagner Act and the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). Double income families were not a uniqueness of the lowest income earners, middle-class America also lost, or at least sustained, buying power during the 1980′s. The results of these policies directly impacted the redistribution of income in favor of the higher income group (Harrison Bluestone 162).

This article focused on one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring. However, the benefactors of the tax reduction were not the majority of wage earners. As Geoghegan puts it, the Taft-Hartley led to union busting.. Yet, no real credible argument has been made that the Reagan years did anything to improve the equality of income distribution. With the weakening of organized labor by deregulation, businesses began experimenting with organizational changes to include work, labor, management relations, and flexible arrangements with employees, subcontractors, otherwise known as corporate restructuring.

The counter argument against these income disparity issues is attributed by some as simply a matter of normal business cycles. These methods provided a way of reducing full-time labor wage costs, which included a reduction in employee benefits cost. Either there exists a significant polarization of income distribution around the middle-class or the middle-class is now what used to be the lower-end of the upper-class income.

Final Word

Geoghegan, a former labor attorney, tells of his experiences dealing with organized labor, how and why it has lost its ability to fight. His experience through the late 1960′s and 1970′s describes the labor movement as having become political driven organizations characterized by the same characteristics (greed, power, control, and inequality) of those they despised – Big Business. As a result of these actions, profit margins rose steadily, yet average wages for families has decreased or at best has somewhat frozen in place.

But what is the cost of these outsourcing? The result of reductions in domestic production and outsourcing was a reduction in U.S. Reminiscent of the 1920′s and 1930′s, the middle class, formerly the largest class of the post WWII through the Vietnam War era has also been ever decreasing in size. The reduced costs resulting from relocating no-skill jobs, low-skill jobs, assembly, and manufacturing operations to low wage areas, validated the practice of outsourcing. The wage-gap between the America lower income group and the upper or rich America group has been ever increasing. Often it’s stated that the Reagan Administration was trying to reduce the double-digit inflation of 1980 and turn around the falling rate of production. Families expanded their use of “plastic money” even faster. Keeping labor costs from rising is not the only reason that U.S. Reaganomics, in effect, was a program to strengthen business and industry while weakening the power of organized labor, reduce federal spending on other than military programs, reduce taxes, and regulatory abatement. Salaries and benefits of corporate CEOs as compared to the average factory workers were 30 times higher in1980 and reached 130-140 times higher in 1991 (Krugman 262). They provided (and still do) flexibility to tailor their work force needs to the production needs. The Reagan Administration simply continued this trend toward economic deregulation as initiated under Carter. According to data published in Krugman’s book, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age of Diminished Expectations, income data for the period reflects that the tax reductions during the 1980s actually cost the lower 60-percent income groups, while the top 40-percent income groups saw monetary increases (Krugman 24-5). businesses began discarding their standard practices and shifted capital into overtly speculative ventures. Harrison and Bluestone call the Reagan Administration “the single greatest gift to the business community” (Harrison Bluestone 102). Therefore, it’s not too surprising to see the average American family would not be to upset if union organizations were losing ground. The two-tier wage system allowed reduced wages for employees during the new worker’s first few weeks or months of the normal probation period. They increased offshore investments and began outsourcing for labor and manufacturing in search of the lowest labor and production costs.

Part of the Reagan plan was a reduction in taxes. The Government’s induced deflation, deregulation, regressive tax reform, privatization, and “union bashing” have contributed to new corporate strategies and the inequality of income distribution in America (Harrison Bluestone 16). During the 1970′s the average family income was $24,000, while the average steelworker was making $40,000. Employment in mining actually rose until 1981 only to fall nearly in half during the 1980′s through the 1990′s (Slater 129).

Reagan was not the only one conducting a reduction program. Additionally, in 1947 and the passing of Taft-Hartley, labor could no longer organize on the scale of unions of the 1930′s. It became a joke to say, “We are spending money to help the economy.” Consumer borrowing doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. This was more than $1,740 less than they would have received based on 1968 income levels (Harrison Bluestone 131). The existence of the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) also quieted union members by insuring the benefits of workers displaced when companies went bankrupt or their pension plans go bust.

There is plenty of material to argue whether or not Reaganomics was an economic success or an economic blunder. By the late 1980s the before tax GINI Index was (.423) with the after taxes GINI as (.404). A further major benefit of these creative pay systems was that they provided a way to avoid unions or at least keep the impact of union actions at a minimum. This group shrank from 53-percent in 1973 to 47.9-percent in 1984. During the 1980′s, the U.S. Harrison and Bluestone define what is usually considered the middle-class income earners, as those making $20,000 to $50,000 annually. The richest 20-percent received $5,600 more per year in 1986, than they would have based on 1968 monetary values (Harrison Bluestone 131). Fulltime manning was drastically reduced in watchdog agencies tasked to monitor the various industries. Contingency labor included part-time and temporary employees. Yet, organized labor was not the only one to feel the reduction of government support. However, after accounting for the business cycle, for productivity, and for the shrinkage of manufacturing jobs, the growing proportion of baby boomers in the work force contributes nothing to an explanation of low wages. Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).In effect, most Americans during the Reagan Years went into debt. “The old Teamster order collapsed and thousands of firms closed (Geoghegan 139).” During the late 1970′s and into the 1980′s, the Teamster membership fell from 2.2 million to 1.6 million. This article will discuss one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring.

Social deregulation, as described by Harrison and Bluestone, was a true innovation of the Reagan Administration. The GINI Index numbers support this disparity.  Reaganomic policies, though we can’t forget some initial deregulation efforts instituted during the Carter years, reversed what had been accomplished prior to the 1970′s (Harrison Bluestone 79). At the end of the Carter Era the GINI Index before taxes was (.403) and (.352) after taxes. Benefit packages for these contingency employees were either non-existent or at least small enough to still keep labor costs low. This living on debt and buying time was sufficient to fuel a short-term recovery (Harrison Bluestone 147). Since employee turnover is highest during the first few months of employment, businesses could save at least 20 to 25-percent of the wages they would have paid to an employee during that same period.

From 1973 to 1986 average wages have dropped in buying power by nearly 14-percent (Harrison Bluestone 113).In 1986, the average annual income of the poorest 20-percent of all families was $8,033.

Since the mid-1960′s through the 1990′s, Americans have been getting poorer and poorer. DOD spending doubled $134 billion in 1980 to $282 billion in 1987 (Harrison Bluestone 149). firms have gone abroad to set up assembly or service operations. Also on the hit list for Reaganomics, was the reduction of social programs.

The Government economic policies supporting deregulation and the concept of privatization of government services were actually taken initially between the years 1968-1978. The same act that affirmed the right to organize but gave the NLRB the job of certifying whether or not a union was to be considered “officially” recognized. The “engineered recession” of 1980 and 1981-2, along with reductions in social welfare programs contributed to this “great U-turn” in the standard of living of most Americans, employed as well as unemployed, middle managers as well as blue collar workers (Harrison Bluestone viii). A major part of Reagan’s policy was to enhance the military complex in order to stay ahead of the perceived communist threat. Reagan policies were designed to provide some flexibility for businesses to contain production costs, increase profits by reducing labor costs, and reducing the costs involved in meeting government standards. After 1980, the purchasing power of lower-class wage earners through middle-class wage earners degraded throughout the period. The result of this program was a softening of safety and environmental regulations to ease the burden on industry. As a result, the traditional one-income household was no longer sufficient to keep up with the family economic needs. Credit card use grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149).Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).

Reaganomics Debate:Inequality in Income Distribution, Government Policies and Corporate Restructuring

Mountains of paper have been written about the economic period of the 1980′s, coined Reaganomics. This act also weakened union power by outlawing mass picketing, secondary strikes on neutral employers, and sit-downs. In some cases businesses just simply got out of the production end and found alternate “ways of making paper profits” or found other ways to reduce labor costs.

The total amount borrowed by consumers nearly doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. This shows that there was a higher distribution of income in the hands of fewer people (Krugman 25).

While Presidents Reagan and Bush froze the minimum wage level for a nine-year period, essentially cutting pay each year as inflation bit into lower wage earners, the salaries of executives skyrocketed during the 80′s. One argument presented to explain this problem is that the “low wage explosion is mostly a statistical illusion, reflecting the impact of inflation and recession on workers’ earnings (Geoghegan 124).” Another proposal is to attribute the problem to a large influx of baby boomers into the work force. During this period the government went on a spending spree financed by the deficit. Some firms have done so to improve their chance of selling to foreign markets or to take advantage of foreign government incentives (taxes) (Harrison Bluestone 31).

Geoghegan believes that part of the weakening of unions also has to do with a lack of sympathy by the average family. Union bureaucracy began to rival that of the federal and state court systems (Geoghegan 86-7).

Of course there are many supporters of Reaganomics that will produce statistics showing how the GNP was sustained during the 1980′s; there is really no mystery here. But most of all, during the Reagan year’s people went into debt.

Ronald Reagan’s laissez-faire government policies, reminiscent of the 1920′s, included legislative and legal actions that severely hampered organized labor

Name your craziest sexual experience. It can be a place, an act, anything.

. I have no idea how they didn’t hear us, or see us, but we quickly got dressed, got up, and snickered the whole way back to the car. We were having sex, and this couple walks past us and sits on the bench no more than five yards away from us.

My husband and I went to our favorite park in the dark, and he suggested that I wear a dress. It was a clear night, so we laid down in the shade of a tree in the grass